Archaeological Discoveries in the Parish of Northbourne
Below is a list of some of the archaeological sites and finds from the parish of Northbourne.
PALAEOLITHIC (c.500,000-10,000 BC)
Period of hunter-gatherers although there were long periods of 100,000 years or more when, due to the advance of the ice, there appears to have been no human presence.
1964 - Palaeolithic handaxe discovered during the excavation of the Finglesham Anglo-Saxon cemetery. The axe was found in a field to the east of the cemetery.
Reference: Hawkes, Sonia Chadwick, 1976, 'Palaeolithic Hand-axe from Finglesham', Kent Archaeological Review No. 43, 59.
1975 - Palaeolithic handaxe discovered at Finglesham, later survey of the area at TR 332 541 recovered an additional 51 flints.
Reference: Gaunt, J., 1975, 'Palaeolithic hand-axe from Finglesham', Kent Archaeological Review No. 39, 252.
1991 - Palaeolithic handaxe discovered at Finglesham in the garden of 'The Old Waggoners', Marley Lane, TR 3336 5350. Acheulian handaxe, 172mm long.
Reference: Halliwell, Geoffrey, 1992, 'Another Palaeolithic hand-axe from Finglesham', Kent Archaeological Review, No. 107, 155-8.
1993 - Fragment of an Acheulian handaxe and some 25 struck flints from West Street, Finglesham, TR 333 543.
Reference: Halliwell, Geoff and Parfitt, Keith, 1993, 'Non-River Gravel Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Discoveries in East Kent’, Kent Archaeological Review No. 114, 80-89.
Reference: Halliwell Geoff and Parfitt, Keith, 1996, 'More Palaeolithic Discoveries in East Kent', Kent Archaeological Review No. 123, 58-64.
2001 - Acheulian, Lower Palaeolithic handaxe from, Finglesham, TR 3376 5373.
Reference: Parfitt Keith, Halliwell Geoff, 2009, 'An Acheulian Handaxe from Lower Farm, Finglesham, Near Deal', Kent Archaeological Review No. 178, 178-180.
MESOLITHIC (c.10,000-4500 BC)
The last hunter-gatherer period at the end of the last Ice Age; glacial meltwaters turned Britain into an island.
1981-2 - An assemblage of flint was recovered from the foundations of a new cow shed at Finglesham, TR 3383 5377.
Reference: Halliwell, Geoffrey and Parfitt, Keith, 1983, 'A Mesolithic Site at Finglesham', Kent Archaeological Review, No. 72, 29-32.
Parfitt, Keith, 1983, ‘Investigations and Excavations During The Year’, Archaeologia Cantiana, xcix, 290.
BRONZE AGE (c.2300-700 BC)
Earlier Bronze Age c.2300-1200 BC
Later Bronze Age c.1200-700 BC
1991 - Early Bronze Age axe head discovered in Ham. The bronze axe-head is only 44mm in size and broadly dated c.2000-1400 BC. Small tools such as this one have only been recorded in a few places and perhaps were used for detailed and intricate woodworking.
Reference: Parfitt, Keith, 1992, 'A Bronze Age Axe from Ham near Deal', Kent Archaeological Review No.198, 198-9.
IRON AGE (c.700 BC-43 AD)
1929 - Late Iron Age pottery (dated between 2nd century BC and 1st century AD) was discovered when a cesspool was being dug at the site the new White Horse Inn at Finglesham.
Reference: Stebbing, W. P. D., 1929, 'Iron Age Hearth at Finglesham near Eastry, Kent', Archaeologia Cantiana, xli, 69-70.
1978 - Small amount of Iron Age pottery recovered near to Little Mongeham during excavations for a gas pipeline.
Reference: Parfitt, Keith, 1979, 'Discoveries along a pipeline through the parishes of Sutton and Northbourne near Deal', Kent Archaeological Review, No. 55, 110-15.
2002 - Iron Age pottery has been noted amongst the molehills on Almonry Meadow, south of Northbourne village hall, TR 33476 52320.
ROMANO-BRITISH (AD 43 - 410)
1974 - Romano-British cemetery uncovered during road widening at Mount crossroads, Northbourne. A total of fourteen burials were excavated, nine were inhumations, three were cremations and two others were probably inhumations. A date between A.D. 240 and A.D. 320 is suggested for the burials.
Reference: Philp, Brian, 1978, 'A Romano-British Cemetery at Northbourne, Kent', Kent Archaeological Review No. 52, 30-49.
Philp, Brian, 2002, Archaeology in the Front Line, 117-119.
The Roman road from Richborough to Dover passes through Betteshanger. More details
Reference: Margary Ivan D, 1955, 'Roman Roads in Britain, Vol. 1'
ANGLO-SAXON (AD c.410 - 1066)
Early Anglo-Saxon (410-650)
Middle Anglo-Saxon (650-800)
Late Anglo-Saxon (800-1066).
1928-9 - Excavation of Finglesham Anglo-Saxon cemetery (38 graves) by W.P.D Stebbing.
Reference: Stebbing, W. P. D., 1929, 'Jutish Cemetery near Finglesham, Kent', Archaeologia Cantiana, xli, 115-125.
1959-1967 - Further excavation of Finglesham Anglo-Saxon cemetery by Sonia Chadwick (later Sonia Chadwick Hawkes). The cemetery was in use from the sixth to the seventh century.
Reference: Chadwick, Sonia E., 1958, 'The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Finglesham, Kent: A Reconsideration', Medieval Archaeology, vol. 2, 1-71.
Reference: Hawkes, Sonia Chadwick, 1976, 'Orientation at Finglesham: Sunrise Dating of Death and Burial in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery in East Kent', Archaeologia Cantiana, xcii 33-52.
1973 - Updown Anglo-Saxon cemetery, situated on the east side of the Dover to Richborough Roman road, was discovered from the air in 1973 and protected by law when it was scheduled in 1975 (Scheduled Ancient Monument - SAM 298). Strictly speaking this site is in the parish of Eastry not Northbourne.
1976 - Sonia Hawkes excavated the route of a water pipeline which ran across Updown Anglo-Saxon cemetery. A total of 36 graves were located, many enclosed by penannular ditches. Many had coffins and a variety of grave goods. The graves were well spaced apart because generally the graves were surrounded by penannular ditches, 4.5 to 7 metres in diameter. All graves dated to the second half of the seventh century.
Reference: Hawkes, Sonia Chadwick, 1976, 'Interim Report on Excavations at Eastry', Archaeologia Cantiana, xcii 247-8.
Reference: Hawkes, Sonia Chadwick, 1977, Medieval Archaeology xxi (1977), 209.
1989 - Excavation of Updown Anglo-Saxon cemetery along the route of the Eastry Bypass, TR 3115 5373. A total of 54 graves were located, of which 13 had been previously excavated by Sonia Hawkes in 1976. Some of the graves may be dated to the late-seventh century or even early-eighth century.
Reference: Willson, John, 1990, 'Rescue Excavations on the Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Eastry 1989' Kent Archaeological Review No. 100, 229-31.
Reference: Philp, Brian and Keller, Peter, 2002, 'The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Eastry, near Dover'. Published by the Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit.
POST-MEDIEVAL (post 1485)
1982 - Ship graffiti discovered on wood panelling in Flint House at Northbourne, TR 3329 5211. The latest ships shown are barquentines of the 1850's.
Reference: Jones H. A., 1985, 'Some 19th century graffiti at Northbourne', Kent Archaeological Review No. 81, 17-20.